The complex genomic landscape of prostate cancer evolves across disease states under therapeutic pressure directed toward inhibiting androgen receptor (AR) signaling. While significantly altered genes in prostate cancer have been extensively defined, there have been fewer systematic analyses of how structural variation reflects the genomic landscape of this disease. We comprehensively characterized structural alterations across 278 localized and 143 metastatic prostate cancers profiled by whole genome and transcriptome sequencing. We observed distinct significantly recurrent breakpoints in localized and metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancers (mCRPC), with pervasive alterations in noncoding regions flanking the AR, MYC, FOXA1, and LSAMP genes in mCRPC. We defined nine subclasses of mCRPC based on signatures of structural variation, each associated with distinct genetic features and clinical outcomes. Our results comprehensively define patterns of structural variation in prostate cancer and identify clinically actionable subgroups based on whole genome profiling.