Background: Bipolar androgen therapy (BAT) results in rapid fluctuation of testosterone (T) between near-castrate and supraphysiological levels and has shown promise in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Its clinical effects may be mediated through induction of DNA damage, and preclinical studies suggest synergy with PARP inhibitors.
Patients and methods: This was a single-center, Phase II trial testing olaparib plus BAT (T cypionate/enanthate 400 mg every 28 days) with ongoing androgen deprivation. Planned recruitment was 30 subjects (equal proportions with/without homologous recombination repair [HRR] gene mutations) with mCRPC post abiraterone and/or enzalutamide. The primary objective was to determine PSA50 response (PSA decline ≥50% from baseline) rate at 12-weeks. The primary analysis utilized the entire (intent-to-treat [ITT]) cohort, with those dropping out early counted as non-responders. Secondary/exploratory analyses were in those treated beyond 12-weeks (response-evaluable cohort).
Results: Thirty-six patients enrolled and 6 discontinued prior to response assessment. In the ITT cohort, PSA50 response rate at 12-weeks was 11/36 (31%; 95% CI 17-48%), and 16/36 (44%, 95% CI 28-62%) had a PSA50 response at any time on-study. After a median follow-up of 19 months, the median clinical/radiographic progression-free survival in the ITT cohort was 13.0 months (95% CI 7-17). Clinical outcomes were similar regardless of HRR gene mutational status.
Conclusions: BAT plus olaparib is associated with high response rates and long PFS. Clinical benefit was observed regardless of HRR gene mutational status.